Kafuwar Daular Birtaniya (1)

Daga MAHDI M. MUHAMMAD

A yau jaridar Manhaja ta koma ɓangaren daular ƙasar Birtaniya ne, inda za ta fara kawo wa masu karatu abin da ya sauwaƙa kamar haka;

Daular Birtaniya (British Empire), suna ne da ake kiran Tarayyar Turai (United Kingdom), wacce ta tattaro ƙasashen Ingila, Sikotilan, Wels (Wales), wasu lardunan cikin Irilan, da kuma dukkan wata ƙasa wacce ke ƙarƙashin mulkin Tarrayar Turai, wacce ke da helikwata a Landan.

Daula ce da ta kafu ta hanyar faɗaɗa mulkinta cikin wasu ƙasashe a duniya, wanda ta fara a cikin ƙarni na goma sha biyar, sannan kuma ta ƙare a cikin ƙarni na ashirin a lokacin da ta damƙa ƙasar Hong-Kong ga China a shekarar 1997.

Tarihi ya nuna cewa, wannan Daula ta Birtaniya ita ta zama daula mafi girma a duniya (Wikipedia, 2017; New World Encyclopedia, 2016). Lokacin da ta ke kan ganiyarta, musamman a cikin ƙarni na ashirin, wato a shekarar 1912, faɗinta ya kai kimanin kashi ashirin da huɗu bisa ɗari na faɗin duniya. Sannan kuma a cikin shekarar 1921, tana da jama’ar da yawansu ya kai kimanin mutane milimiyan ɗari huɗu da saba’in (470,000,000), wanda zai iya ɗaukar kashi ɗaya bisa uku na yawan mutanen duniya baki ɗaya, kamar yadda ya zo a New World Encyclopedia (2016).

Amma a Wikipeidia (2017), an zayyana faɗin daular da kashi ashirin da uku, kimanin yawan mutane miliyan ɗari huɗu da goma sha biyu (412, 000,000), kwatankwacin kashi ashirin da uku bisa ɗari na yawan mutanen duniya a cikin shekarar 1913. Sannan kuma da faɗin ƙasar da ya kai kimanin faɗin murabba’in kilomita 35, 500, 000, kwatankwacin kashi ashirin da huɗu bisa ɗari na faɗin ƙasar duniya a cikin shekarar 1920.

Manya-manyan amfanoni da wannan daula ta samar a duniya akwai samun ’yancin kai ga ɗaiɗaikun mutane, dakatar da mulkin danniya da sarakuna suka riqa gabatarwa a yankunansu, yaɗa ilimi da wayar da kan jama’a, sanin mutuncin kai da mutumta juna a tsaknin jama’a, gano albarkatun ƙasa da amfanin da suke da shi, inganta harkar noma da mayar da ita ta zamani, sada zumunta tsakanin al’ummu, garuruwa, da ƙasashe, da saraun abubuwa masu tarin yawa da wannan daula ta samar a duniya.

Wannan daula ta mulki ƙasashe masu yawa a duniya ciki kuma har da ƙasashen Amurka, Indiya, Nijeriya, Afirka ta Kudu, Portugal, Hong-Kong, da sauransu. Daular da ta fara daga tsakiyar ƙarni na goma sha biyar ta kuma ƙare a ƙarshen ƙarni na ashirin.

Asali:

Tantace haƙiƙanin kwanan watan da Daular Birtaniya ta fara, abu ne mai matuƙar wahala (Luscombe, 2012). Amma ana ganin cewa, wannan daula ta fara ne a cikin ƙarni na goma sha biyar, a zamanin mulkin sarkin Ingila, Heri na bakwai (King Henry VII), wanda ya yi wa’adin sarauta daga shekarar 1485 – 1509, wannan daula ta fara tsirowa ta hanyar yunƙurinsa na shimfiɗa fuka-fukan kasuwancin ƙasar Birtaniya a sauran sassan duniya a wacan lokacin.

Abin ya fara ne zamanin da ƙasar ta Birtaniya ta tura sojojinta na ruwa, a cikin shekarar 1497 zuwa arewacin Amurka, dan binciko irin arziki da Allah ya shimfiɗa a wannan yanki na duniya ƙarƙashin jagorancin masanin harkar ruwa John Cabot, a zamanin sarautar sarki Heri VII (King Henry VII).

Wannan tafiya ta John Cabot, ya yi ta ne a cikin shekarar 1497 da nufin gano tafarkin zuwa Asiya, a kan hanyarsa ta tafiya, ya ratsa ta cikin Arewacin Tekun Atilantika (North Atlantic).

Tafiyar da ta kai shi har zuwa wani tsibiri a Gabashin Arewacin Amurka, wanda daga baya yankin ya faɗa ƙarƙashin mulkin mallakar Ingila (Softschools, 2017: Wikipedia, 2017). Sai dai, Wikipedia (2017), sun ce wannan tsibiri Newfoundland ce. softschools (2017), kuma suka ce ya ayyana wannan ƙasa a matsayin wani yanki mallakin sarki Henry VII da zaton cewa, wannan guri Asiya ce.

Amma a bisa yadda ya zo a shafin Wikipedia (2017), su, suna ganin cewa, a cikin shekarar 1707, lokacin da Daular Sikotulan (Scotland) ta kuɗe, ta shige cikin waccar Daula ta Birtaniya, suka zama abu guda da suka kira Daular Babbar Birtaniya (Kingdom of Great Britain), shi ne masomin wannan Daula ta Britaniya.

Saboda a wannan lokaci ne dukkan ƙasashen da waɗannan dauloli biyu suke mulka, suka haɗe suka zama abu guda. Wannan ra’ayi na su ya zo daidai da abin da shafin New World Encyclopedia (2016), ya wallafa, duk da cewa, sun saɓa a wajen shekarun da abin ya faru, inda su na biyun suka ce, an yi wannan haɗaka ne daga shekarar 1541 zuwa 1550.

Sai kuma a cikin shekarar 1801, wannan Daula ta Babbar Birtaniya, ta sake haɗiye Daular Irelan (Ireland), suka haɗu suka zama abu guda. Wato suka kafa sabuwar Daular da aka kira ta da suna Daular Birtaniya (British Empire), wacce kuma ita ce marubuta suka baiwa waccar fassara da ta zo a farkon wannan shafi; wato cewa, Daular Birtaniya ita ce daular da ta tattaro ƙasashen Ingila, Sikotilan, Wels (Wales), wasu lardunan cikin Irilan, da kuma dukkan wata ƙasa wacce ke ƙarƙashin mulkin Tarrayar Turai, wacce ke da helikwata a Landan ƙarƙashin jagorancin sarki ko sarauniyar Birtaniya.

Daular da ta samu ƙarfi da faɗin da ba a taɓa samun wata daula da ta kai kamar ta ba a duniya. Har akan yi mata kirari da Daular da rana bata faɗuwa a cikinta, a wancan lokacin. Abin da ake nufi da wannan shi ne cewa, duk gurin da ka zaga a duniya, ka ci karo da wani yanki ko wata ƙasa da ke ƙarƙashin mulkin wannan daula a duniya, a wancan zamanin.

Za mu cigaba a mako na gaba.

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